For simplicity in constructing the human figure, divide the figure into five
elements. Approach each element as a task and reduce each task to basic
forms. The five elements in figure construction are the torso, the arms, the
legs, the hands and feet, and the head.
The torso, or upper body, is easily rendered as a modification of two
cylinders or an inverted and truncated (cut off at the apex) cone.
inverted cones may portray some body shapes better. Running along the
center of the back, connecting the head to the neck and the neck to portions
of the torso, is a flexible column that allows the torso to twist and bend.
Figure 3-40 shows cylinder and cone construction of torsos.
Figure 3-40.Constructing a torso from cylinders
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