Process and Copy Cameras, Continued
Sheet film and
Sheet films and papers can be developed conventionally in a four-tray manual
process or with an automatic processor.
Conventional development of photographic sheet films and papers is a four-
tray process. The first tray contains developer. Developer is a chemical that
reacts with the film or paper to make images appear. The second tray
contains stop bath, a weak acetic acid that neutralizes the action of the
developer. The third tray contains fixing agent. The fixer stabilizes the
developed image by chemically removing undeveloped light-sensitive
crystals. The fourth tray contains water. Water removes chemicals from the
film or paper. Allow films or papers to thoroughly rinse in water after
development. If the water wash is insufficient, the film or paper continues to
chemically change resulting in uneven streaking or browness.
Figure 7-5 illustrates the process for conventional development of sheet films
Figure 7-5.Conventional development of sheet films and papers.
The temperature of each trays contents should be approximately 70 degrees.
Temperature variation between trays should not exceed 5 degrees. The
warmer the liquids in the trays, the faster action takes place. The
disadvantage of excessively warm temperatures is rapid overdevelopment.
The disadvantages of cooler than required temperatures is slow development
and weak images. Extreme temperature variations cause increased grain or
reticulation. Do not put your hands into the chemicals. The warmth of your
hands will raise the temperature of the solutions. Moving your hand from
one tray to another will contaminate them. Use tongs to move the film or
paper through the development process. Hang films and papers by one
corner to air dry.
Continued on next page