Guidelines for calligraphy are the same as the guidelines for general lettering.
There is a capline, baseline, waistline, line of ascent, and line of descent.
Vertical guidelines or lines of inclination indicate the vertical orientation of
letters. If you are lettering letters with kerns, you may want to add a branch
line. A branch line uniformly indicates where kerns are to meet letter
stems. Draw a branch line at an arbitrary distance between the waistline and
Figure 5-61 shows the placement and purpose of branch lines.
Figure 5-61.The placement of branch lines.
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